Dear Springfield College Community,

Undergraduate research and creative activity are a fundamental part of the Springfield College experience, which is why each spring we come together to celebrate the hard work of students, sharing the fruits of their academic labors alongside peers, faculty mentors, and the wider campus community. Despite the unprecedented challenges we have dealt with this semester in moving to a remote learning format, this has not daunted our students, who have submitted an impressive amount of original scholarly work! 

While I am sure we would all prefer to be having this celebration together on campus, it is an honor to keep the tradition alive in a virtual form. In this online presentation format, we invite you to explore the work of our students, including nearly 40 undergraduate research projects from 9 departments, and one recorded dance performance. 

On behalf of the SIA Day Planning Committee, we wish to express our deep gratitude to the students and their faculty mentors for all of their hard work this year. Let Scholars in Action Day 2020 be a reminder of Springfield College’s enduring commitment to intellectual curiosity, and our students’ exploration of research and creativity in close collaboration with faculty. We are inspired and humbled by your talent and dedication.

Welcome to Springfield College’s Scholars in Action Day, 2020!

Analytical - Science

The Association between Animal-Assisted Therapy and Reduction of Symptoms in Various Mental Illnesses (Brown, R.)

The Association between Animal-Assisted Therapy and Reduction of Symptoms in Various Mental Illnesses

Researched and presented by: Rachel Brown, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Pamela Higgins, Associate Professor of Health Science
Department: Health Science
Questions: rbrown16@springfield.edu


Abstract

Animal-Assisted therapy, also known as AAT, is a form of therapy that is mainly goal-oriented. AAT uses a variety of animals, mainly dogs and cats, to allow a patient with any mental, physical, emotional or social disability/illness to meet a specific goal. Many therapists use AAT for patients battling emotional and mental illnesses in order to have a constant sense of comfort or safety with the animal present. 

To examine a significant association between AAT and the reduction of symptoms in patients with certain mental illnesses - specifically anxiety, depression, dementia, and schizophrenia disorders. Databases such as Academic Search Complete, PubMed, MEDLINE Plus, and Google Scholar were used to search for peer-reviewed articles relating to Animal-Assisted therapy (and therapies similar) and their relation to reduction in symptoms of mental illnesses. A majority of the studies’ researchers came to similar conclusions on the association between this therapy and outcomes. 

There were about an even number of analytical studies (case-control and clinical case trials) and review studies (systematic, narrative and literature). The treatment of Animal-Assisted therapy (AAT), is beneficial in reducing symptoms of some mental illnesses. It is important to note that researchers found AAT to be more beneficial for patients suffering from mood-related illnesses (anxiety and depression) rather than personality or memory disorders. However, some aspects of certain studies showed to be inconclusive, suggesting more research must be done with that specific mental illness and AAT.

Keywords: Animal-Assisted therapy, mental illness, symptoms, reduction, improvement


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Differences in Fundamental Movement Skill Performance Between Homeschool Boys and Girls (Danahey, J., Dupuis, R., Goyda, M., & Meyers, C.)

Differences in Fundamental Movement Skill Performance Between Homeschool Boys and Girls

Researched and presented by: Johnny Danahey, Ross Dupuis, Megan Goyda, and Colleen Meyers, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Zhan Liu, Professor of Physical Education
Department: Physical Education and Health Education
Questions: mgoyda@springfield.edu


Abstract

The present study was designed to examine locomotor skills and ball skills of the TGMD-3 task sheet among elementary school students. The participants included 32 male students and 17 female students with ages ranging from 5 to 10 years old from a Homeschool Program at Springfield College composing students from western Mass. All participants have limited to no previous training experience in these fields and were randomly selected to participate in this study by their teacher.  The study involved students performing 2 trials of every TGMD-3 activity. These activities included locomotor skills like running, skipping, galloping, jumping, sliding, hopping, and ball skills like dribbling, kicking, overhand and underhand throwing, hitting with a long-handed implement and a short-handed implement and catching. Participants participated in these activities after being pulled from their PE classes. Students participated in this study for about 15 minutes. 

During this study, students received no feedback from the evaluators except for one or two skill demonstrations if the student was confused on what to do. Evaluators used the unique scoring rubric for each individualized skill provided in the TGMD-3 scoring packet.  An independent samples t test was conducted to examine the difference in mean locomotor skill performance between male and female students. Descriptive statistics were also used to illustrate performance characteristics of the two groups in the two skill performances. All statistical analysis was performed using the current version of SPSS. The results of the study showed that male participants (M=18.9, SD=3.44) did not have significantly higher (t=-1.049, p>.05) mean locomotor skill performance score than that of their female classmates (M=19.9, SD= 2.94).  

The finding of this study suggests that both groups of homeschool students have the same level of locomotor skill performance.  In the future study, researchers should look into the relationship between skill performance and performance mechanics of the TGMD-3 skills. 


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How Does Joint Attention Impact Language Development Differently Between Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? (Hunter, C.)

How Does Joint Attention Impact Language Development Differently Between Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Researched and presented by: Casey Hunter, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Deborah Cook, Associate Professor
Department: Communication Sciences and Disorders
Questions: chunter@springfield.edu


Abstract

Joint attention is defined as a shared attentional focus between a child and their caregiver. Joint attention is one of the major building blocks of language, in which other aspects of language develop off of. Although the vast majority of people develop joint attention seamlessly, there is one population of children that does not develop this skill naturally; children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). As many know, ASD is a developmental disorder that impacts many aspects of a person’s life, including their language and communication skills. 

ASD currently the fastest growing developmental disorder in the United States; currently 1 in 59 school aged children have a diagnosis. This means that 1 in 59 school aged children do not have the tools they need to develop functional language and communication skills. The purpose of this research is to examine the distinct differences between joint attention development in typically developing children and children that have been diagnosed with ASD, and find efficient and plausible means of intervention to provide equity among these two populations. Results yielded that Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBIs) were the most effective means for providing young children with ASD joint attention skills. 


View the How Does Joint Attention Impact Language Development Differently Between Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? Poster

Quantifying Reticulocytes in Sea Birds (Li, Q.)

Quantifying Reticulocytes in Sea Birds

Researched and presented by: Qi Li, Class of 2022
Sponsored by: Melinda Fowler, Assistant Professor of Biology
Department: Health Science
Questions: qli2@springfield.edu


Abstract

Arctic Terns (ARTE) are the longest distance travelers, migrating from above the Arctic Circle in the north to Antarctica in the south every year, while the Long-Tailed Jaegers (LTJA) breed in tundra and migrate through both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Migration is a period of intense exercise as the birds fly, which needs red blood cells to support as they carry the majority of oxygen in the blood stream. The reticulocytes are a developmental stage of red blood cells which can be indicative of aerobic capacity. Higher reticulocytes could indicate the birds have upregulated the production of red blood cells to carry more oxygen.

The purpose of this study is quantifying reticulocytes in sea birds. Seventeen breeding birds were captured by in Denali National Park alpine tundra (n= 6 LTJA) and the North Slope of Alaska, above the Arctic Circle (n = 9 ARTE and n = 2 LTJA). Stain was added to the blood samples and then blood smears were prepared for 2-3 microscope slides per bird. Reticulocytes were identified and counted under the microscope (100x). The goal was to count 1000 cells per slide, however the quality of several slides was low and the average total count of cells was 833 (+- 217) for ARTE and 759 (+-213) for LTJA.  Reticulocytes as a proportion of the total cells counted averaged 2.21 (+- 1.02) % for ARTE and 3.22 (+- 1.02)% for LTJA.  The results were lower than we expected compared with other species. Further research with larger sample sizes and better slides quality would help us better understand these patterns.


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Nutrition and Autism (Sullivan, A.)

Nutrition and Autism

Researched and presented by: Amanda Sullivan, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Donna Chapman, Associate Professor of Nutritional Sciences
Department: Nutritional Sciences
Questions: asullivan6@springfield.edu


Background: 

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can cause a child to have issues with eating and nutrition. The prevalence of ASD is increasing and studies have shown that certain nutrients and deficiencies could be a factor. ASD can also cause children to struggle with certain textures, ingredients, and flavors. 

Methods: 

This review of literature will research ASD and the nutrient deficiencies that are commonly seen with it, and also strategies that parents and children can explore in hopes to reach a diverse and healthy diet for the child. 

Results: 

Six relevant studies were identified and reviewed. In one study, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduced issues with speech and hyperactivity. Dietary intake of vitamin B6, B12, Magnesium, and Folate were assessed, however, results varied. Multiple dietary approaches were researched, including a gluten-free and casein-free diet, the ketogenic diet, and the specific carbohydrate diet. None of these interventions improved ASD nutrition-related issues. ASD may cause children to have trouble with sensory processing, which may impact the child’s ability to consume specific types of foods. The resulting unbalanced diet can have significant effects on a child’s development. 

Conclusions: 

The research on the effects of supplements and different diets on ASD has yielded conflicting outcomes and a limited amount of data. Currently, there is no evidence to confirm that nutritional deficiencies have any effect on ASD, nor do nutritional supplements help the symptoms of ASD.  More research on all aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorder and nutrition is needed.

Nutritonal Strategies to Maximize Muscle Hypertrophy (Tryon, E.)

Nutritional Strategies to Maximize Muscle Hypertrophy

Researched and presented by: Evan Tryon, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Donna Chapman, Associate Professor of Nutritional Sciences
Department: Nutritional Sciences
Questions: etryon@springfield.edu


Background:

Muscle hypertrophy is influenced by many key variables including resistance training, training status, gender, genetics, sleep, recovery, and nutrition. Dietary interventions proposed to enhance muscle hypertrophy include an energy surplus, sports supplements, and increased protein intake. Many nutrition practices used to increase muscle hypertrophy lack scientific evidence and may be detrimental. This review will examine the key factors in maximizing muscle hypertrophy.

Methods:

A literature review of selected meta-analyses and systematic reviews evaluating nutritional strategies and muscle hypertrophy.

Results:

Positive energy balance is an important nutrition variable as it alone has shown to have an anabolic effect. Essential amino acids are the only amino acids required to initiate the muscle protein synthesis (MPS) process, with leucine being the most potent trigger of MPS. Testosterone changes occurred by slight manipulation in fat intake does not affect muscle gain significantly. A lower fat intake resulted in a lower testosterone concentration within the normal range. Low carbohydrate intake could limit the ability to contract muscles with high force and reduce the number of repetitions performed during resistance training affecting muscle hypertrophy. An intake of 4-7g carbohydrates/kg/day should be followed. Spreading protein intake evenly between multiple meals is best to maximize total daily MPS, aiming for a total of 1.6 - 2.2 g protein/kg/day. 

Conclusion:

Individuals looking to maximize muscle hypertrophy should consume a hyperenergetic diet with the aim of gaining weight. Dietary protein should be consumed between 1.6-2.2 g/kg/day with an even protein distribution across meals every 3-4 hours. Leucine is an essential amino acid required to maximize the MPS response, therefore high quality protein sources containing leucine should be consumed at each meal.Adequate dietary fat and carbohydrate should be consumed to prevent micronutrient deficiencies and augment resistance training. 

Mumford Procedure Performed on a Male Collegiate Lacrosse Athlete (Gonzalez-Rivera, R.)

Mumford Procedure Performed on a Male Collegiate Lacrosse Athlete

Researched and presented by: Roland Gonzalez-Rivera
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Exercise Science and Athletic Training
Questions: rgonzalez-rivera@springfield.edu


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Analytical - Social Science

The Association Between Social Media Use and Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults (Gragnolati, I.)

The Association Between Social Media Use and Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults

Researched and presented by: Ian Gragnolati, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Pamela Higgins, Associate Professor of Health Science
Department: Health Science
Questions: igragnolati@springfield.edu


Background: 

In the US, 8.1% of adults experience a depression disorder, and 72% use social media. Depression diagnoses have become more prevalent in adolescents and young adults in recent years. As social media is a new medium, there have not been many studies on its association with depression. If more sociological causes of depression can be determined, initiatives can take effect in preventing and reducing depressive symptoms.

Objective:

The purpose of this review was to assess the association between social media use and depressive symptoms in adolescents and young adults.

Methods:

The seven studies in this literature review were found by using the Advanced Search feature on the Springfield College Library Services webpage. Keywords included “social media use,” “depression,” “adolescent,” and “young adults.” Search results were restricted to only include peer-reviewed articles that were published in the past five years on WorldCat, Academic Search Complete, MEDLINE, Gale Academic OneFile, and PsycINFO.

Results:

All four studies which measured the association between social media use and depression found a positive association. An RCT by Hunt et al. found that participants with high depression levels at baseline had their mean BDI score decrease from 23 to 14.5 after limiting their social media use.

Conclusion:

This review found that there appears to be a positive association between social media use and depression. It is imperative that more studies are done on this association before any broad recommendations are made to limit social media use in adolescents and young adults.


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A Literature Review of Mental Health in College (Luu, A.)

A Literature Review of Mental Health in College

Researched and presented by: Andrew Luu, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Michael Accordino, Professor of Counseling
Department: Counseling
Questions: aluu@springfield.edu


Abstract

The purpose of this study was to critically review the relevant literature to examine factors that were most consistently related to the mental health in college students. The factors that are examined during the review include sleep hygiene, mental burnout, stress, barriers, depression, and anxiety that were present in college students. A systematic database search and literature review (2010-2019) was performed, including terms such as mental health in college student’s, and “anxiety in college students. 

Strong evidence was shown that mental health in college students is essential for their quality of life. College students are not performing to the best of their ability due to poor mental health, due to the everyday pressure that they face that can lead to poor mental health hygiene. Poor mental health hygiene can cause mental distress in college students. Fifteen studies were used for this review. Future research can include how to help identify mental health issues before they occur in college students as well as in proactive ways for college students to help themselves first.

Keywords: College students, depression, anxiety, quality of life, burn out, sleep hygiene, university life, psychotherapy.

Pirate Map of Florida (Peck, J.)

Pirate Map of Florida

Researched and presented by: Jamie Peck, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Fernando González de León, associate professor of history
Department: Criminal Justice
Questions: dpeck@springfield.edu


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Descriptive

Assessment of Ball Skill In Elementary Students (Azul, L., Bowers, H., & Correia, F.)

Assessment of Ball Skill in Elementary Students

Researched and presented by: Lino Azul, Hunter Bowers, and Fabian Correia, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: John Liu, Professor of Physical Education
Department: Physical Education and Health Education
Questions: lazul@springfield.edu


Abstract

The present study was designed to examine ball skill in male and female students of homeschooled elementary school students. The participants included 32 male and 17 female students with ages ranging from 5-11 in the Springfield area. All participants in the study have no previous training of this ball-skill assessment and volunteered to participate through the Springfield College Homeschool Program. 

The task of the study involved performing 3 trials each of kicking and catching assessments on the outside of the track in the field house. Participants were pulled from their homeschool classes to the area to participate, and were given no demonstration or warmup activity before attempting the assessments. Each participant performed the shooting skill individually and did not receive any feedback throughout his/her performance. A 3-point scoring rubric was used to evaluate the performer’s kicking and catching performance accuracy. 

An independent samples t-test was conducted to examine the difference in mean ball skill performance accuracy between the male and female students. Descriptive statistics were also used to illustrate performance characteristics of the two performers on the skill performance. All statistical analyses were performed using the current version of SPSS. The results of the study revealed that the male participants (M-22.59 SD-2.66) did not have significantly higher scores than their female counterparts (M-22.53 SD-3.1). The current finding suggests that both male and female students demonstrate a similar level of ball skill.  Future studies need to investigate gender difference in ball skill performance across all age groups.    


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Compound Ankle Fracture and Dislocation in a 20-Year-Old Female Gymnast: A Case Study (Batoosingh, B., & Bixler, J.)

Compound Ankle Fracture and Dislocation in a 20-Year-Old Female Gymnast: A Case Study

Researched and presented by: Ben Batoosingh and Jack Bixler, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: jbixler@springfield.edu


Background:

Women's gymnastics highlights the human body’s incredible ability to leap and twist through the air in an elegant fashion, which often involves high-impact landings. Early specialization coupled with the high-impact nature of the sport place collegiate female gymnasts at an increased risk for injury (Kerr, Hayden, Barr, Klossner, & Dompier, 2015). Over 70% of injuries in the sport occur during competition, with floor exercises and vault accounting for the largest number (Marshall, Covassin, Dick, Nasser, Agel, 2007). 

While uncommon, the high-impacts gymnasts endure can cause fracture and dislocation, and in even rarer instances, a combination of the two (Marshall et al., 2007, Kerr et al., 2015). Ankle position and force direction upon landing can cause traumatic injury to the ankle (Haraguchi & Armiger, 2009). Case Presentation: A 20-year-old female collegiate gymnast was performing a vault routine and landed on her right ankle pronated, resulting in a compound tibial dislocation. The fracture lacerated the skin exposing approximately an inch and a half of the distal tibia. Normal circulation, motor function, and sensation was present distal to the injury site. The patient was placed in a vacuum splint and transported via ambulance to a nearby hospital for surgery. The patient presented with an oblique distal fibula and medial malleolar fracture and dislocation of the tibiotalar and talofibular joints with a disruption of the tibiofibular syndesmosis (Priyanka, 2020). 

Conclusions:

Trans-syndesmotic ankle fracture-dislocations are usually the result of high-energy trauma (Deng et al., 2018). The Lauge-Hansen classification system is used to classify ankle fracture patterns by analyzing whether the foot was pronated or supinated during the application of abduction, adduction, or external rotation forces (Haraguchi & Armiger, 2009). 

A mechanism of ankle pronation with applied external rotation forces upon landing primarily caused the oblique fibular, medial malleolus fracture, and the associated dislocation (Haraguchi & Armiger, 2009). Under the Orthopedic Trauma Association (OTA) Fracture and Dislocation Classification Compendium the fracture is designated a 44C1.2u fracture (Meinberg, Agel, Roberts, Kellam, & Karam, 2018). The designation describes a supra-syndesmotic simple diaphyseal fibular fracture at the malleolar segment with a medial malleolar fracture and an unstable syndesmosis (Meinberg et al., 2018). While Lauge-Hansen classifications are widely used and accepted to classify ankle fractures, OTA classifications are more comprehensive and based off long bone fracture patterns (Tartaglione, Rosenbaum, Abousayed, & DiPreta, 2015). Disruption of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis is commonly associated with ankle fracture-dislocations (Wang et al., 2017). In women’s gymnastics, the vault is the cause of over 25% of injuries in the sport, with the highest instance of injury occurring on the dismount and landing (Marshall et al., 2007). 

Similar mechanisms of high energy injuries can result in other types of ankle fractures. High-energy axial or rotational forces transmitted to the ankle complex could result in a “log-splitter” injury, where the talus wedges between the tibia and fibula or distal tibiofibular joint with possible tibial and fibular fractures (Wang et al., 2017). Tibial pilon fractures occur when the talus is driven into the distal tibia, exploding the articular surface of the distal tibia caused by high-energy trauma from falls from a height or motor-vehicle-related accidents (Jacob et al., 2015). 

Clinical Bottom Line:

Trans-syndesmotic ankle fracture-dislocations are extremely rare and require high-energy trauma to occur (Deng et al., 2018). However, when torque occurs in the lower limb, the ankle becomes susceptible to simultaneous injuries (Zamboni et al., 2016). A high-energy external rotation force on a pronated ankle in a gymnastics vault landing can produce enough energy to result in ankle fracture-dislocation. Better understanding of the mechanism of ankle fracture-dislocations can increase understanding of such injuries.  Word Count: 595.

References 

Deng, Y., Dong, C., Yang, X., Liu, R., Hou, F., Li, S., & Tang, K. (2018). High-Energy Transsyndesmotic Ankle Fracture Dislocation: A Case Report and Systematic Literature Review. Case Reports in Orthopedics, 2018, 1–8. 

Haraguchi, N. & Armigr, R. S. (2009). A new interpretation of the mechanism of ankle fracture. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 91(82), 1-9. 

Jacob, N. Amin, A., Giotakis, N., Narayan, B., Nayagam, S., & Trompeter, A. J. (2015). Management of high-energy tibial pilon fractures. Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction, 10(3), 137-147.

Kerr, Z. Y., Hayden, R., Barr, M., Klossner, D. A., & Dompier, T. P. (2015). Epidemiology of national collegiate athletics association women’s gymnastics injuries, 2009-2010 through 2013-2014. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(8), 870-878. 

Marshall, S. W., Covassin, T., Dick, R., Nassar, L. G., & Agel, J. (2007). Descriptive epidemiology of women’s gymnastics injuries: National collegiate athletics association injury surveillance system, 1988-1989 through 2003-2004. Journal of Athletic Training, 42(2), 324-240. 

Meinberg, E. G., Agel, J., Roberts, C. S., Kellam, J. F., & Karam, M. D. (2018). Fracture and dislocation classification compendium. Journal of Orthopedic Trauma, 32(1), 1-170. 

Priyanka, D. (2020). Radiology report findings (Report No. 999). Springfield, MA: Baystate Medical Center. 

Tartaglione, J. P., Rosenbaum, A. J., Abousayed, M., & DiPreta, J. A. (2015). Classifications in brief: Lauge-Hansen classification of ankle fractures. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, 473(10), 3323-3328. 

Wang, Z., Tang, X., Li, S., Wang, X., Gong, L., Zhong, T., & Wang, K. (2017). Treatment and outcome prognosis of patients with high-energy transsyndesmotic ankle fracture dislocation—the “Logsplitter” injury . Journal of Orthopedic Surgery and Research, 12(3), 1–10.

Zamboni, C., Campos, F. A. G., Foi, N. O., Souza, R. C., Christian, R. W., & Mercadante, M. T. (2016). Tibial shaft fracture and ankle injury: A case report. Brazillian Society of Orthopedics and Traumatology, 51(5), 597-600."


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Superventricular Tachycardia in a 20-year old Female Volleyball Athlete: A Case Study (Dargie, H., & Glynn, M.)

Superventricular Tachycardia in a 20-year old Female Volleyball Athlete: A Case Study

Researched and presented by: Hannah Dargie and Meghan Glynn, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: hdargie@springfield.edu


Background:

Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a common form of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).  AVNRT is most prevalent in the adult population accounting for 50 to 60 percent of the diagnosis (Colucci, Silver, & Shubrook, 2010). The group most affected is young, healthy women (Colucci et al., 2010).  AVNRT is caused by atypical or typical nodal pathways.  An atypical nodal pathway reacts fast then slow while a typical pathway reacts slow then fast (Colucci et al., 2010). Supraventricular tachycardias represent a range of tachyarrhythmias originating from a circuit or focus involving the atria or the atrioventricular node (Bibas, Levi, & Essebag, 2016).  Supraventricular tachycardias are common (Bibas et al., 2016). The prevalence of SVT in the general population is 2.25 per 1,000 population and the incidence 35 per 100,000 person-years (Bibas et al., 2016)

Case Presentation: 

A 20-year-old female volleyball player complained of strong heart palpitations once, during a game and once at practice. During the palpitation episodes the patient experienced cold sweats with an increased blood pressure and a heart rate greater than 230 beats per minute (bpm). Ventricular rates in SVT may vary from 150 to 250 bpm (Bibas et al., 2016).  After wearing a heart monitor for 30 days, undergoing multiple electrocardiograms, an echocardiogram, blood work, and stress tests, the patient was diagnosed with AVNRT. The results of each test presented an arrhythmia that went from fast to slow instead of slow to fast indicating a tachycardia abnormality.  This atypical tract, fast to slow, is only present in 10% of the population whereas the slow to fast tract is present in 90% of the population (Colucci et al., 2010). The patient was then scheduled for an ablation procedure to remove the abnormality.  

The patient fasted for 12 hours before the procedure and was put under heavy sedation for the surgery. Three incisions were placed in the groin region and a catheter was inserted through the main artery to the heart. Once the catheter was inserted, the electrical circuit of the heart was mapped to find the exact location of the SVT. A typical electrophysiology study is a programmed stimulation from the right ventricle, followed by programmed stimulation from the proximal coronary sinus (Jan, Zizek, Rupar, Mazic, Kuhelji, Lakie, & Gersak, 2016). To induce a tachycardia episode, the heart rate of the patient was increased to 230 bpm through medication to locate the abnormality. The abnormality was found in the coronary sinus (CS) almost midway through the activation of the right ventricle and left ventricle lateral wall (V-V interval). The abnormality was then ablated and the patient was then given isoproterenol to induce a second episode. 

A tachycardia episode could not be produced, indicating a successful procedure. 

Conclusions: 

All patients with symptomatic SVT should be referred to a cardiologist for assessment and management (Bibas, Levi, & Essebag, 2016).  Due to the location of the abnormality, the ablation was very close to the electrical circuit of the heart, causing the procedure to be completely precise. The assessment of blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing rate warranted further referral by the athletic trainer to gain a final diagnosis of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (Colucci et al., 2010).

Clinical Bottom Line: 

For an athletic trainer, recognition of a tachycardia episode and proper treatment is key to prevent the use of emergency medical response (Casa et al., 2012).  Rapid recognition of the underlying rhythm is essential to correct management in the acute setting, including identifying patients who may benefit from definitive treatment with catheter ablation (Bibas et al., 2016). 

Word Count: 586"


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A Male Basketball Player with Chronic Plantar Fasciitis Treated with PRP Injection (Foster, S.)

A Male Basketball Player with Chronic Plantar Fasciitis Treated with PRP Injection

Researched and presented by: Sean Foster, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: sfoster3@springfield.edu


Background: 

A male basketball player with chronic plantar fasciitis received a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection. The PRP injection was prescribed due to multiple modes of unsuccessful treatment in reducing pain. The PRP is extracted from the blood of the patient and put through a centrifuge. A PRP injection is an injection of the patient’s blood plasma into the site of the injury to bring nutrients for the purpose of healing. (Tiwari & Bhargava, 2013). 

Case Presentation:

 21-year-old male basketball player with chronic plantar fasciitis received a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection. The patient received PRP treatment following six weeks of conservative treatment consisting of immobilization in a walking boot for two weeks and a plantar fasciitis rehabilitation protocol. Multiple treatment options were ineffective in resolving the patient’s symptoms. 

Patient underwent iontophoresis with dexamethasone treatments for two weeks, which also proved ineffective. After being immobilized for two weeks, the patient’s treatment consisted of hot whirlpool therapy, thermal ultrasound, arch strengthening, ankle range of motion (ROM) and lower leg strengthening. Following six weeks of treatment, the pain did not subside, and the patient was prescribed a PRP injection as recommended by the team physician. The patient was immobilized in a walking boot for two weeks post-injection and was transitioned out of a walking boot over the course of three days. Light ankle ROM and arch strengthening was added after being immobilized. 

The patient remained pain-free following the PRP injection. Six weeks post-injection, the patient returned to intense treatment and rehabilitation which included ultrasound, dynamic fascial decompression, ankle ROM, eccentric foot exercises, arch strengthening, balance, and various forms of soft tissue mobilization. The patient moved into sport-specific motions 12 weeks post-injection. Conclusions: Tiawari & Bhargava (2013) define plantar fasciitis as chronic degenerative tendinopathy with inflammation of the thick fibrous band of tissue which originates at the calcaneus and inserts on the metatarsal heads. Micro-tears occur within the fascia at the insertion near the calcaneus (Tiawari & Bhargava, 2013). Efficacy of PRP injection in chronic plantar fasciitis has exhibited a long-term decrease in pain.

Patients who have received PRP injections have a decrease in pain within the first-month post-injection. Full healing properties of PRP take effect after the three-month period (Vahdatpour, Kianimehr, Moradi & Haghighat, 2016). PRP was the better treatment option compared to corticosteroids as a long-term treatment pain control and healing of the plantar fascia. Corticosteroids have an increased likelihood of reducing pain in the short term but do not promote the healing effects that PRP does (Vahdatpour et al., 2016). PRP has shown to decrease pain after one, three, and six months compared to corticosteroids which are associated with an increase in pain until the six-month mark (Tiawari & Bhargava, 2013). PRP can be beneficial in the recruitment of growth factors like cytokines, and anti-inflammatory markers begin the healing process and remove any degenerated tissue in the process (Yang et al., 2017). 

Clinical Bottom Line:

PRP is an effective treatment for the athletic population if conservative treatment does not produce relief of symptoms in plantar fasciitis. Treatment after PRP injection is vital for decreasing pain and increasing the ability to target foot strengthening for return to play in a timely manner. The rehabilitation protocol did not change before or after injection, the PRP aided in the decrease of pain and the ability to progress in rehabilitation. 

Word count: 555

References:

Tiawari, M. & Bhargava, R. (2013). Platelet-rich plasma therapy: A comparative effective therapy with promising results in plantar fasciitis. Journal of Clinical Orthopedics and Trauma, 4(1), 31-35.

Vahdatpur, B., Kianimehr, L., Moradi, A. & Haghighat, S. (2016). Beneficial effects of platelet-rich plasma on improvement of pain severity and physical disability in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized trial. Advanced Biomedical Research, 5(1), 179-194.

Yang, W., Han, Y., Cao, X., Pan, J., Zeng, L., Lin, J. & Liu, J. (2017). Platelet-rich plasma as a treatment for plantar fasciitis: A meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Wolters Kluwer Health, 96(44), 1-8.


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A microdiscectomy of L5-S1 in a 20-year-old male offensive lineman: A Case Study (Grant, S.)

A microdiscectomy of L5-S1 in a 20-year-old male offensive lineman: A Case Study

Researched and presented by: Sophie Grant, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: sgrant4@springfield.edu


Background:

A microdiscectomy also known as micro-decompression is a minimally invasive surgical procedure performed on patients with herniated lumbar discs (Hermantin, Peters, Quartararo & Kambin, 1999). The main goal of a microdiscectomy is to reduce pressure on spinal cord and spinal nerve roots (Hermantin et al., 1999). A microdiscectomy uses an interlaminar approach to remove herniated disc material and to resect other damaged tissues (Barth, Weiss & Thomé, 2008). Surgeons use a microscope to view the disc and nerves (Barth, Weiss & Thomé, 2008).  The larger views allow the surgeon to use a smaller incision, resulting in less damage to the surrounding tissue (Barth, Weiss & Thomé, 2008).  Throughout the years, the procedure has been modified to a more minimalist approach with minimal removal of bony and ligamentous structures while keeping the herniated disc as intact as possible (Barth et al., 2008). Often patients who present with a herniated disc receive a lumbar fusion. Though a lumbar fusion presents with the same recovery time as a microdiscectomy, lumbar fusion often has more restrictions in return to activity (Barth et al., 2008). Due to the patient being a Division I offensive linemen, a microdiscectomy was used.

Case Presentation:

The patient is male, NCAA Division I offensive linemen, complaining of lower back pain effecting his hamstring and hip flexor. 

During summer football session (2019), the patient was benching when the disc herniation took place, similar to pain the patient has felt in the previous summer session. Immediately the patient started to feel radicular pain and weakness in the back and left leg, also the patient also had decreased reflex in the left Achilles. The patient was removed from sport and referred to the team physician to undergo a Magnetic Resonance Imagining (MRI). The MRI revealed a lumbar disc herniation of L5-S1 on the left side. The patient was recommended for a microdiscectomy. The surgery to place on August 2019. The patient immediately was able to feel his left leg without having any radicular symptoms. 

After surgery, the patient was restricted from any sport activities for eight weeks. The patient had a follow-up with the surgeon who stated the patient should keep following a protocol. The patient has yet engaged in position-specific drills but is instructed to begin running and participating in drills in March 2020. Conclusions: Due to the patient having a microdiscectomy, the patient was able to begin rehabilitation, and everyday activities with less to no restrictions. After having a microdiscectomy, the patient should immediately become pain-free and should be able to resume activity within 4 to 6 months of surgery (Barth et al., 2008). The patient is able to return to lift (with caution of axial loading), start engaging in return to play activities, started running drills, and is said to return fully to play in the fall 2020 session.  

Clinical Bottom Line:

By choosing a microdiscectomy, the patient will be able to return to sport with no restrictions. Microdiscectomy allows for faster return to play then lumbar fusion. The success rate of a microdiscectomy is very high indicating a good overall quality of life.   

Word Count: 544


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Retrolisthesis of the Fifth Lumbar and First Sacral Vertebra in a 17 Year Old High School Football Athlete: A Case Study (Holliday, K.)

Retrolisthesis of the Fifth Lumbar and First Sacral Vertebra in a 17 Year Old High School Football Athlete: A Case Study

Researched and presented by: Katherine Holliday, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: kholliday@springfield.edu


Background:

Retrolisthesis is a condition of the spine in which the vertebral body is displaced posteriorly (Zaidi, Nuhmani, & Jalwan, 2015).  Spondylolisthesis, an anterior slippage of the vertebral body, is a  similar condition and more common injury than Retrolisthesis (Spinasanta, 2020).   Overall, retrolisthesis at the level of L5-S1 has an incidence of 23.2% (Shen, Razi, Lurie, Hanscom, & Weinstein, 2007).   

Retrolisthesis can be caused by congenital laxity or by a gradual elongation of the vertebral ligaments (Zaidi, Nuhmani, & Jalwan, 2015).   The symptomatic presentation of retrolisthesis varies but is typically caused by nerve root compression and mechanical pressure on the joint depending on the degree of displacement (Zaidi, Nuhmani, & Jalwan, 2015).   Retrolisthesis is linked to disc degeneration, decreased lordosis of the lumbar spine, and a decrease in the angle of the vertebral endplate (Shen, Razi, Lurie, Hanscom, & Weinstein, 2007).   The most common intervention for retrolisthesis is non-surgical (Zaidi, Nuhmani, & Jalwan, 2015). In significant cases of retrolisthesis, surgery is possible (Zaidi, Nuhmani, & Jalwan, 2015).   

Nonsurgical treatment includes the use of therapeutic exercise to strengthen the muscles of the low back and core focusing on stabilization and extension exercises (Zaidi, Nuhmani, & Jalwan, 2015).   Surgical correction of retrolisthesis is typically completed with a displacement of two millimeters or more (Zaidi, Nuhmani, & Jalwan, 2015).   Case Presentation: A  seventeen year old, male, high school football and track athlete reported the gradual onset of increasing pain over the course of three years.   The patient complained of increased pain while laying in the prone position, with side lying, and increased pain when running. The patient reported a sharp pain which prevented normal movement when standing.   

The original diagnosis after referral to a physician was “growing pain”.   The patient returned to the physician after three years of increasing pain.   The physician ordered diagnostic imaging in the form of X-ray and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).   The MRI did not show any soft tissue abnormalities.   The X-ray revealed retrolisthesis of L5 and S1. The patient was treated conservatively with non-surgical intervention. Treatment included physical therapy three times weekly and restriction from weight lifting for three months during the summer.   The patient has reported a decrease in duration, frequency, and intensity of pain after the start of a therapeutic exercise program.   The patient was cleared for full contact in September, 2019.   Since returning to sport specific activity the patient has responded well to treatment with heat and soft tissue mobilization in addition to therapeutic exercises.  

Conclusion:

Retrolisthesis is more rare compared to spondylolisthesis but may result in similar pain and dysfunction.   Retrolisthesis is identified with X-Ray imaging.   The non surgical route of treatment allows the patient to gain strength, stability, and normal function without the risk and cost of spinal surgery.   

Clinical Bottom Line:

Retrolisthesis is a condition wherein the vertebrae of the spine slip posteriorly.   Chronic low back pain in young athletes should not be looked at as merely “growing pains” as it was in this case, because the possibility for injury is too great when dealing with the spine.   Radiographs are the gold standard in identifying retrolisthesis.   

Correct diagnosis of retrolisthesis is needed for proper therapeutic exercise and healing.  

Word count: 520"


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Associations Between Male Gender and Autism Spectrum Disorder (Karpicki, A.)

Associations Between Male Gender and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Researched and presented by: Alyssa Karpicki, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Pamela Higgins, Associate Professor of Health Science
Department: Health Science
Questions: akarpicki@springfield.edu


Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is categorized as a developmental disability that affects the brain in areas such as social interaction, communication, and cognitive functioning. ASD is one of the fastest-growing developmental disorders in which research is critical to conduct and understand. In 2018, the CDC established that 1 in 37 males are diagnosed with ASD, while 1 in 151 females are diagnosed with ASD.

The high rates of gender variance have been reported; however, very little is understood about ASD and the underlying factors of the discrepancies between gender and prevalence because symptoms vary across each individual. The available literature was sorted by the most recent investigations since 2014. Of the eleven analytic studies distinguishing male prevalence of ASD from females four recent investigations were considered that involved the following criteria: investigations were conducted in the past five years, included adolescents (ages 1.5 to 19 years of age), included a relatively even male to female ratio of participants, included ASD diagnostic criteria conducted by a trained clinician and were not confusing in the English language.

 Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to assess the relationship between the male gender, specifically in adolescents, and the diagnosis of ASD.  Based on the literature available, there is weak evidence to support the association of why males have a higher prevalence of ASD. Further investigations using larger sample sizes and that specifically describe gender differences in ASD adolescents’ brains and behavior are necessary to distinguish the association of ASD and male gender.

Young Adults' Expectation for Dating Relationships (Forde, C., & King, S.)

Young Adults' Expectation for Dating Relationships

Researched and presented by: Christina Forde and Sara King, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Elizabeth Morgan, Associate Professor of Psychology
Department: Psychology
Questions: emorgan2@springfield.edu


Abstract

This study examined expectations that young adults' in the United States perceived to receive from other sources about dating and sexual experiences. Participants included 494 young adults between the ages of 18-30 who completed open-ended questions via an online platform. 

Recruitment included a purposeful data sampling from Qualtrics panels to achieve roughly the same number of male and female participants who were currently in relationships with same-sex and other-sex partners. Analysis included thematic coding of responses, with adequate reliability between two independent coders. 

Results suggested that participants recognized: expectations for heterosexuality; expectations for certain timelines to occur (e.g., when to date, when to have sex, when to get married, and when to have kids); expectations for having a quality relationship (including trust, fidelity, and care for each other); and less so for following traditional gender roles and religious principles. Some gender differences emerged with regard to how expectations were articulated. Overall, the young adults were able to recognize patterns of expectations that follow traditional social norms, and discuss how they did and did not fit into these expectations in their own dating histories and current relationships.


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Left Unlar Collateral Ligament Sprain in a 19- Year- Old Female Gymnast: A Case Study (LaPlante, E.)

Left Unlar Collateral Ligament Sprain in a 19- Year - Old Female Gymnast: A Case Study

Researched and presented by: Emily LaPlante, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: elaplante@springfield.edu


Background: 

The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is the primary medial stabilizer of the elbow and resists valgus stresses applied to the elbow joint (Zaremski et al., 2017). Injuries to the UCL are common among participants in overhead throwing sports (Zaremski et al., 2017).  Research focuseson the male population and showed good outcomes for patients who undergo surgical repair and/ or reconstruction of the UCL (Ramos & Limpisvasti, 2019).  

Injury to the UCL in non-throwing athletes involves an acute traumatic incident and the prevalence of UCL injuries in gymnasts is not known (Nicolette & Gravlee, 2018).  Gymnasts have repetitive upper extremity axial loading, performed with the elbow near full extension (Nicolette & Gravlee, 2018).  Considering sport and position, the load placed on the UCL can determine nonsurgical or surgical treatment (Nicolette & Gravlee, 2018).  A large magnitude of forces is present on the body in all gymnastics events however, the specific forces may vary depending on the event (Nicolette & Gravlee, 2018).  Case Presentation:  A 19-year-old female gymnast sustained a sprain of the left elbow UCL when performing an overshoot on the uneven bars.  The patient was tender to palpate over the anterior and posterior aspects of the UCL.  

Positive tests were found with a valgus stress test and moving valgus stress test between 70 and 120 degrees. The patient was given a two week home rehabilitation program during the winter break.  Upon return to participation the patient was unable to complete sport based activities without pain. The patient was removed from practice after no change in symptoms or ability.  Rehabilitation of the elbow included forearm flexor strengthening and external rotation exercises.  Strengthening exercises are performed initially in pain free midrange of motion with overpressure at the end ranges of motion (Prentice, 2015).  

Laser treatment was implemented before the exercise program.  Nonoperative treatments with structured rehabilitation have demonstrated high rates of return to play following UCL injury in non-throwing sports (Nicolette & Gravlee, 2018).  Gymnasts who have sustained partial tears of the elbow UCL have been returned to sport between two and six weeks with nonoperative treatment (Nicolette & Gravlee, 2018).  The patient began the return to play process in five weeks, and was competition ready in six.   Conclusions:  The patient underwent a nonoperative treatment.  Majority of UCL injuries can be managed conservatively and are beneficial for the non-throwing athlete due to the limited time spent in an externally rotated position (Zaremski et al., 2017). 

Conservative treatments of the UCL begin once symptoms reside and focus on strengthening the forearm muscles (Prentice, 2015).  A high magnitude of forces is present on the upper body during the uneven bars event in gymnastics (Nicolette & Gravlee, 2018). The sport and event of the patient likely played a large role in injury severity and return to play.   Clinical Bottom Line:   Elbow UCL injuries are common in adolescents playing throwing sports (Zaremski et al., 2017).  

The incidence of nonsurgical UCL injury patterns and management in populations of non-throwing athletes is unknown (Zaremski et al., 2017).  Few studies have been published on the incidence of injury and return to play recommendations in gymnastics (Nicolette & Gravlee, 2018).  Rehabilitation programs which focus on strengthening the flexor muscles can help the patient return to play without the need for surgical intervention (Prentice, 2015). 

Word Count: 562

References

Prentice, W. E. (2015). Rehabilitation Techniques for Sports Medicine and Athletic Training (6th  ed.). Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Nicolette, G. W., & Gravlee, J. R. (2018). Ulnar collateral ligament injuries of the elbow in female division I collegiate gymnasts: a report of five cases. Journal of Sports Medicine, (9), 183-189.

Ramos, N., & Limpisvasti, O. (2019). UCL injury in the non-throwing athlete. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine, 12, 527-533.

Zaremski, J. L., & McClelland, J., Vincent, H. K., & Horodyski, M. (2017). Trends in sports-related elbow ulnar collateral ligament injuries. The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 5(10), 1-7."


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Atypical Rhabdomyolysis in a 16-year-old Male Water Polo Player: A Case Study (Donnelly, D., & Lee, M.)

Atypical Rhabdomyolysis in a 16-year-old Male Water Polo Player: A Case Study

Researched and presented by: Dani Donnelly and Miranda Lee, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: mlee8@springfield.edu


Background:

Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a condition when a breakdown and necrosis of skeletal muscle occur after the engagement in physical activity (Tietze & Borchers, 2014).  

Rhabdomyolysis typically evolves from strenuous eccentric exercise at an intensity unaccustomed to an individual participating in a physically demanding task (Cleary et al., 2011).  The increase in intracellular ionized calcium to a level much higher than normal in the cytoplasm and mitochondria causes the cell damage death in skeletal muscle (Tietze & Borchers, 2014).  Individuals with ER typically complain of delay-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), localized edema, and decreased muscle pain (Furnman, 2015).  Exertional rhabdomyolysis is relatively uncommon but the growing popularity of endurance events with more aggressive training is leading to several more reported cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis in both trained and untrained athletes (Furman, 2015).  

Case Presentation:

A 17-year-old boys’ water polo player was in practice when the athlete complained of having chest pain in addition to painful soreness throughout entire body. The athletic trainer responded to the incident and started taking vital signs before the EMTs arrived and found the heart rate abnormally high.  The patient was immediately sent to the hospital and was diagnosed with an atypical rhabdomyolysis. 

The athlete was held in the hospital and was treated with intravenous hydration and tracking of creatine kinase levels. The athlete was also diagnosed with Wolf Parkinson White Syndrome after an electrocardiograph was performed due to experiencing palpitations. The athlete was allowed to leave the hospital after no recurrent symptoms appeared after 48 to 72 hours from the time of injury. The athlete was instructed to limit physical activity and to drink at least 3 liters of water per day. The athlete underwent an intracardiac electrophysiology study after 2 weeks and was noted to have low to moderate risk for sudden cardiac arrest and an ablation procedure of the pathway was performed. The athlete returned to play after a slow progression cardio program with no recurrent symptoms.

Conclusions:

In this unique case of rhabdomyolysis, the athlete did not present common signs of exertional rhabdomyolysis involving DOMS, myoglobinuria, or localized edema (Furnman, 2015). The patient in the unique case study presented symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, and muscle soreness. In the case reported by Cleary et al. (2011) the athlete was participating in a preseason wrestling camp where the athlete was participating in strenuous exercise.  After the third day of training, the athlete started noticing dark brown urine and sever bilateral leg pain in the quadriceps (Cleary et al., 2011).  The wrestler presented with DOMS and dark colored urine where as in the unique case the water polo player presented with chest pain, shortness of breath and muscle fatigue (Cleary et al., 2011). 

Clinical Bottom Line: When a patient complains of severe muscle cramping and is experiencing symptoms such as dark colored urine after intense physical activity, clinicans should always suspect the possibility of ER no matter what level of exertion the patient reports (Furnman, 2015).  During the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, the possibility of multiple different signs and symptoms may occur.  Clinicians must be careful and aware of what to look for in an athlete who may be susceptible to getting rhabdomyolysis (Furnman, 2015). Rhabdomyolysis can be prevented but potentially life-threatening if not caught or recognized in time (Cleary et al., 2011).

Word Count: 578 words. 

References

Cleary, M. A., Sadowski, K. A., Lee, Y. S., Miller, G. L., & Nichols, A. W. (2011). Exertional rhabdomyolysis in an adolescent athlete during preseason conditioning: A perfect storm. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3506-3513. 

Furnman, J. (2015). When exercise causes exertional rhabdomyolysis. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants, 28(4), 38-43. 

Tietze, D. C. & Borchers, J. (2014). Exertional rhabdomyolysis in the athlete: A clinical review. Sports Health, 6(4), 336-339. 


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Acute Clavicular Fracture of an 18 yo Collegiate Wrestler Treated Nonoperatively without Signs of Healing: A Case Study (Maring, A.)

Acute Clavicular Fracture of an 18 yo Collegiate Wrestler Treated Nonoperatively without Signs of Healing: A Case Study

Researched and presented by: Alex Maring, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: amaring@springfield.edu


Background:

Clavicle fractures account for approximately 2.6% of total body fractures. Approximately, 69–81% of fractures to the clavicle occur in the middle one-third (Wang et al., 2015). Clavicle fractures comprise 35–45% of all shoulder girdle injuries in adults and are more prevalent in males (Virtanen et al., 2012). Clavicle fractures are traditionally treated nonoperatively due to concerns about infection, hardware prominence, and a potential increase in the risk of nonunion (Rabe & Oliver, 2011). Individuals who sustain displaced midshaft clavicular fractures are typically placed in a sling for immobilized as nonoperative conservative treatment compared to surgical intervention affecting the anatomical structure of the clavicle as well as the recovery time (Rabe & Oliver, 2011). 

Fractures of the clavicle are typically sustained as a result of direct trauma or a fall on the outstretched hand. Although falling on the outstretched hand is thought to be the most common mechanism of injury, research found in 94% of cases the mechanism of injury to be direct trauma (Daolagupu et al., 2013). Case Presentation: An eighteen-year old, first-year male wrestling athlete, with no prior history of fracture or major injury sustained a displaced mid-shaft clavicular fracture. The injury occurred from being slammed on the mat directly on the tip of the injured shoulder during competition on 1/5/20. Examination determined obvious deformity with brachial and radial pulses within normal limits. Upon initial x-rays, the patient was informed the clavicle was fractured and placed in a sling. Re-evaluation from a second doctor observed no sign of union upon second x-ray. Patient was placed in a posture brace and was instructed to report back to the clinician in two weeks. If no calcification is present, the patient will undergo operative treatment. Upon re-evaluation by the orthopedist, calcification was present at the fracture location; therefore, negating the need for surgical intervention. 

Conclusions:

Operative treatment is superior to nonoperative treatment for the management of displaced mid-shaft clavicle fractures; however, nonoperative treatment is also recommended for fractures with a displacement and shortening of less than 2 two centimetres (Waldmann et al., 2018; Wang et al., 2015). Considering these indications, more than 50% of all midshaft fractures of the clavicle in adults are suitable for nonoperative treatment with excellent functional outcome. (Waldmann et al., 2018). Primary operative fixation could effectively reduce the rates of nonunion, symptomatic malunion, neurological symptoms and overall complications (Wang et al., 2015). 

Clinical Bottom Line:

Conservative treatment may lead to significant deficits, whereas surgical management results in an earlier and more reliable return to full function with a low complication rate (Rabe & Oliver 2011).


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Traumatic Hyphema with an Irregular Presentation: A Case Study (Paquette, B., & Salatel, J.)

Traumatic Hyphema with an Irregular Presentation: A Case Study

Researched and presented by: Ben Paquette and Joseph Salatel, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: bpaquette@springfield.edu


Background:

Hyphema is a condition of blood accumulation in the anterior chamber of the eye (Stilger et al.,, 1999). A hyphema caused by blunt trauma is known as traumatic hyphema (Ghafari et al., 2013). Hyphema is classified into four categories  based on the amount of blood in the eye (Seyed et al.,, 2014). Treatment of a hyphema can reduce the occurrence of intraocular pressure, blood deposition in the cornea, cataracts, optic nerve damage, and a reduction of visual acuity (Ghafari, et al., 2013). Patients with traumatic hyphema are predominantly male with a mean age under 25. Two thirds of hyphemas result from traumatic incidents with the final one-third caused from penetrating trauma (Zafar et al.,, 2019). Hyphema can spontaneously occur in non-traumatic causes of rubeosis iridis, blood dyscrasias, and juvenile xanthogranuloma.  (Zafar, er al., 2019).  

Case Presentation:

A 23 year-old male soccer player was hit directly in the right orbital region with a soccer ball during practice. The anterior compartment began to fill with blood in an irregular triangular shape causing the individual to lose vision in the affected eye. In common hyphema cases the blood will begin to pool in the bottom portion of the anterior chamber. The blood pools in a fashion where there is continuity across the eye rather than an irregular shape. 

The patient was sent to urgent care where the individual was redirected to the hospital in order to be seen by an opthamologist . The athlete was admitted for five days in order to allow the blood to absorb by sitting upright in the semirecumbent position. The individual had to be admitted in order to reduce the chances of the membrane of the eye from rupturing again and causing permanent vision loss.  Conclusions: The goal of treatment is to minimize secondary injury, decrease the chance of further loss of eyesight and to regain eyesight back. One method of treatment calls for bedrest with bilateral patching while another method includes moderate activity with no significant differences. The most common and conservative form of treatment consists of a patient lying supine with the head elevated to 45 degrees. 

A 45 degree angle allows for grading and assists in clearing visual axis (Stilger, Alt, & Robinson, 1999). Patients are urged to report a suspected hyphema quickly and seek appropriate medical attention from an opthamologist.  Clinical Bottom Line: The mechanism of the injury presented is the most common form of hyphema, but the presentation of the blood in the anterior chamber was unique to the current case. The triangular blood pooling shape was not seen in any other literature upon review. Instantaneous loss of vision was an uncommon presentation to common presentations of hyphema.

Word Count: 464

References 

Ghafari, A., Siamian, H., Aligolbandi, K., & Vahedi, M. (2013). Hyphema caused by trauma. Medical Archives, 67(5), 357–359.

Seyed, H., Mohammad, R., & Mahmoud, M. (2014). Comparison between topical and oral tranexamic acid in management of traumatic hyphema. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, 39(2), 178-183. 

Stilger, V., Alt, M. J., & Robinson, W. T. (1999). Traumatic hyphema in an intercollegiate baseball player: A case report. Journal of Athletic Training, 34(1), 25-28. 

Zafar, S., Canner, J., Mir, T., Srikumaran, D., Channa, R., Goldberg, M., . . . Woreta, F. (2019). Epidemiology of hyphema-related emergency department visits in the united states between 2006 and 2015. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 26(3), 208-215.


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Grade 3 Lisfranc Ligament Sprain Treated with Internal Fixation in a 21-year-old Male: A Case Study (Rouleau, N.)

Grade 3 Lisfranc Ligament Sprain Treated with Internal Fixation in a 21-year-old Male: A Case Study

Researched and presented by: Noah Rouleau, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: nrouleau@springfield.edu


Background:

A lisfranc joint sprain is a rare condition in which the lisfranc ligament complex becomes compromised due to axial loading while in a plantarflexed position (Nunley & Vertullo, 2002). The lisfranc joint acts as a stabilizer for the arch of the foot as well as transfers force from the gastrocnemius to the forefoot (Nunley & Vertullo, 2002). The ligament originates on the lateral surface of the medial cuneiform and inserts into the plantar and lateral surfaces of the first and second metatarsals (Nunley & Vertullo, 2002). Important findings to note when evaluating a patient with a suspected lisfranc ligament injury include tenderness to palpation at the tarsometatarsal joint and first and second metatarsals. Other findings include pain when weight-bearing and a decrease in the transverse arch of the foot (Nunley & Vertullo, 2002). 

In order to accurately diagnose this injury, a weight-bearing radiograph is needed to highlight a diastasis between the first and second metatarsal (Nunley & Vertullo, 2002). Case Presentation: A 21-year-old male NCAA male football offensive lineman endured a grade 3 rupture of the lisfranc joint. The initial injury occurred while participating in a game. The patient reported having the retrocalcaneal aspect of the foot rolled on during a play while in a plantarflexed position and immediately felt a sharp pain. Initial x-rays revealed no fracture or ligamentous rupture, a typical outcome observed in midfoot sprains. Weightbearing x-rays were ordered and revealed a 3-5 millimeter diastasis. The patient underwent fixation of a plate on the first metatarsal and utilized a “homerun” screw pinning the first cuneiform to the base of the second metatarsal. At the twelve-week checkup, x-rays exhibited the fixated screw had broken in two pieces. 

Surgeons plan on the removal of the fixated screw and treat the injury conservatively. Conservative treatment consists of the use of orthotics and the continued use of rehabilitative exercise. The study seeks to determine the effectiveness of the usage of a single fixed screw compared to normative surgical procedures on recovery time. Conclusions: Studies agree that in the case of a level 3 lisfranc sprain the mechanism, symptoms and surgical treatment were all in agreement (Nunley & Vertullo, 2002). Patients typically will experience a low-velocity impact in a plantar fixed position and experience a pop or crack followed immediately by pain (Nunley & Vertullo, 2002). Patients will have symptoms in the days following the initial mechanism; pain while weight-bearing, tender to palpate on the midfoot ecchymosis and edema on the midfoot and erythema (Nunley & Vertullo, 2002). 

Surgically, internal fixation is suggested in the research and was utilized in the case study as well.

Clinical Bottom Line:

The evidence of the case study suggests the use of a fixation screw in lisfranc joint sprains has the possibility to fail. Clinicians should caution in advocating for the use of this type of surgical intervention. Conservative rehabilitation is possible and should be considered in the clinical decision-making process.


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Compound Dislocation of the PIP joint of 5th Finger without Fracture of Avulsion of Flexor Tendons: A Case Study (Thornton, B.)

Compound Dislocation of the PIP joint of 5th Finger without Fracture of Avulsion of Flexor Tendons: A Case Study

Researched and presented by: Bella Thornton, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: bthornton@springfield.edu


Background:

A male football player obtained a volar compound dislocation of the R 5th proximal interphalangeal (PIP) during a collision at football practice. No fracture of the proximal, intermediate, or distal phalanges were present, nor avulsion of flexor digitorum superficialis or flexor digitorum profundus tendons upon further evaluation at the hospital. Dislocations of the PIP are common, but volar dislocations without rupture of the central tendon or collateral ligament with the absence of a fracture is rare (Saitta & Wolf, 2018). Case Presentation: The patient is a 19-year-old male football player who received a traumatic injury to the fifth digit of the hand after the finger was caught in a jersey of a teammate during practice. The mechanism of injury resulted in a compound dislocation of the PIP joint. The wound was irrigated to remove debris from the site of injury, followed by immobilization and packing of the finger in ice before referring to Bay State Medical Center. 

The patient received an x-ray determining the absence of a fracture or avulsion of the flexor tendons and was given stitches after the dislocation was reduced. An orthoplast buddy strap splint was applied to protect the joint while the stitches healed. Other comparative splints, such as complete immobilizations and dorsal-blocking splints, may be implemented to treat a volar PIP dislocation (Joyce, Joyce, Conroy, Chan, Buckley, & Carroll, 2014). Using a figure-eight splint instead of an orthoplast buddy strap is more effective in regaining full range of motion (ROM) and having fewer doctor visits during recovery while reducing long-term pain, joint stiffness and instability of the PIP joint (Joyce et al., 2014). The preferred outcome to a volar dislocation is regaining full ROM without complications of joint stiffness, muscle weakness, or disruption in the gliding of tendons (Joyce et al., 2014). The patient progressed to running and aerobic workouts two weeks after injury, refraining from grasping items of at least 10 pounds in weight as well as lifting objects greater than 15 pounds with his right hand. 

The patient had to wear the orthoplast buddy strap brace for all activities. The patient has made a full recovery and is currently cleared for full participation splint-free, 14 weeks after the initial injury took place. Conclusions: Injuries to the PIP joint must be treated immediately due to the potential damage of ligaments or the volar plate (Freiberg, 2007). X-rays are valuable at the time of injury to determine the extent of dislocation or subluxation, as well as to identify the presence of any avulsion fractures requiring further rehabilitation (Freiberg, 2007). The patient was able to receive immediate treatment from the athletic training staff present at the time of injury and was sent for imaging immediately after the incident occurred, overall reducing the occurrence of secondary injury. 

Clinical Bottom Line:

Dislocations of the PIP joint of the fifth finger are not uncommon injuries of the hand, but a volar dislocation is the least common type of PIP dislocation, making the case presented unique (Saitta & Wolf, 2018). Volar dislocations often result in a central slip rupture or are accompanied by a rupture of the volar plate with at least one collateral ligament, but the patient had neither complication, also adding to the uniqueness of the case (Saitta & Wolf, 2018).

Word Count: 544

References:

Freiberg, A. (2007). Management of proximal interphalangeal joint injuries. Can J Plast Surg,15(4). 199-203.

Joyce, K. M., Joyce, C. W., Conroy, F., Chan, J., Buckley, E., & Carroll, S. M. (2014). Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations and treatment: An evolutionary process. Archive of Plastic Surgery, 41. 394-397. 

Saitta, B. H., & Wolf, J. M. (2018). Treating proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations. Hand Clinic, 34. 139-148.


View the Compound Dislocation of the PIP joint of 5th Finger without Fracture of Avulsion of Flexor Tendons: A Case Study Poster

Correlation between performance outcome and performance quality of fundamental movement skills (Bratberg, N., Tassy, B., & Webb, D.)

Correlation between performance outcome and performance quality of fundamental movement skills

Researched and presented by: Nick Bratberg, Brendan Tassy, and Dereck Webb, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Zhan Liu, Professor of Physical Education
Department: Physical Education and Health Education
Questions: dwebb@springfield.edu


The population of homeschool children in the United States is growing, but the correlation between their level of skill and performance level is unknown. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate levels of skill development in relation to skill performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the performance outcome and the performance quality of fundamental movement skills homeschool students participating in a Physical Education program. 

Forty-nine homeschool children (32 boys and 17 girls) participated in a once-weekly structured Physical Education program over a four-week period.  Separate Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients were conducted to examine the relationship between the performance outcome and the performance quality scores.  Descriptive statistics were also examined.  

All statistical analyses were performed using the current version of SPSS.  The significance level was set at .05.  The results of the analyses revealed a significant correlation between locomotor skill performance outcome and movement quality scores, r=-.283, p=.048, and between horizontal jump outcome and jumping movement quality scores, r=.659, p=.0001.  The findings of the current study suggest that desirable performance outcome of fundamental locomotor skills is closely associated with good movement forms and mechanical quality of the skill performance in homeschool children.  It is recommended that future programs focus on increasing the time spent on skill development rather than performance outcome.


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Delayed onset bursitis in a male collegiate football player (Critz, N., & Gray, C.)

Delayed onset bursitis in a male collegiate football player

Researched and presented by: Nicholas Critz and Cameron Gray
Sponsored by: Sue Guyer, Professor of Athletic Training
Department: Athletic Training
Questions: cgray4@springfield.edu


Background:

According to Prentice (2015), a bursa is a fluid filled sack which are found in areas of high friction throughout the body and allow for smooth, pain free motion. When a bursa becomes injured, the fluid from the bursa leaks out into the surrounding area and the inflammatory response of the body causes swelling to become present in the area of injury. The presentation of swelling due to bursitis, especially in traumatic injuries, usually occurs within the first few hours after trauma (Prentice, 2015). 

Clinical Presentation:

An 18-year-old football lineman with no history of knee injuries came into the athletic training room complaining of burning pain just proximal and medial to the left knee. After a full evaluation the athlete left the athletic training room, the athlete came back 30 minutes later with large levels of pitting edema (grade 4+/4+) in the medial aspect of the left knee. In the 30 minutes between visits the patient was sitting watching film, no strenuous activity occurred. The pain was sharp pain (6/10 without pressure and 9.5/10 with pressure) at the point of edema. Blunt trauma was reported in the area forty-eight hours prior to the onset of edema upon secondary evaluation. The patient was referred for both radiography and magnetic resonance imaging, both imaging techniques found no abnormalities. Initially, GameReady with elevation was utilized, and patient was sent home with ace wrap. Patient was also given instructions to sleep with the effected leg elevated and to continue to use ace wrap. GameReady would be administered for five days after initial injury. Five days after initial evaluation the patient began therapeutic exercise with isometrics and was advanced through and appropriate concentric and eccentric exercise progression to prevent atrophy.

Conclusion:

The case evaluated is highly unique as the presence of delayed onset bursitis is absent or inconclusive in the literature. Although the patient present with a mechanism of blunt trauma which is a common cause of bursitis, the delayed onset nature of the injury is not typical of an MCL bursitis. According to the case report submitted by Nar, Aytekin, and Gilgil (2018), the presence of MCL bursitis is a rare musculoskeletal condition which occurs in approximately 0.2 percent of the population who have sustained a medial knee injury. In addition, MCL bursitis presents as inflammation, pain, and pitting edema over the medial aspect of the knee. Furthermore, within the study the presence of MCL bursitis is rarely seen in younger patient populations (N= >50 years old) (Nar, Aytekin, & Gilgil, 2018). The patient being 20 years of age and reporting a mechanism which occurred two days prior to the presentation of swelling makes the case presented highly unique.

Clinical Bottom Line:

The recognition and diagnosis of bursitis is highly important in the clinical setting. According to Todd, Isaac, and Curtis (2018), bursitis presents as a rapid accumulation of edema in the area of a bursa after an acute traumatic injury or chronic overuse injury. Van Holsbeeck and Introcaso (2016) also describe bursitis as an acute injury with swelling occurring quickly after initial injury due to the dilation of capillaries, arterioles, and the liquid excreting from the bursa. While the presence of a delayed onset MCL bursitis is extremely rare, the pathology should be considered in any case which presents with knee inflammation consistent with bursitis.

Relevant Evidence:

Pangia and Rizvi (2019) found some instances of olecranon bursitis having a delayed onset of over a week from the initial trauma. However, the presence of MCL bursitis and delayed onset bursitis is inconclusive or absent in the current literature. 

Word Count: 598.

References

Nur, H., Aytekin, A., & Gilgil, E. (2018). Medial collateral ligament bursitis in patient with knee osteoarthritis, Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, 2018(31), pp. 589-591.

Prentice, W. E. (2015). Chapter 2: Understanding and managing the healing process through rehbilitation, Rehabilitation Techniques for Sports Medicine and Athletic Training (6th Edition, pp. 45-47). SLACK Incorporated. Thorofare, NJ.

Todd, D. J., Isaac, Z., & Curtis, M. R. (2018). Bursitis: An Overview of Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, and Management. Retrieved from https://www-uptodate-com.springfieldcollege.idm.oclc.org/contents/bursitis-an-overview-of-clinical-manifestations-diagnosis-and-management?source=history_widget on 2/3/2020. 

Van Holsbeeck, M., & Introcaso, J. H. (1992). Musculoskeletal ultrasound. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd.


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Experimental - Science

The Effects of Dialogic Reading on Tier 2 Vocabulary in Preschoolers (Cadden, S., & Niden, M.)

The Effects of Dialogic Reading on Tier 2 Vocabulary in Preschoolers

Researched and presented by: Sofia Cadden and Michala Niden, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Deborah Cook, Associate Professor
Department: Communication Sciences and Disorders
Questions: mniden@springfield.edu


Abstract

The effects of dialogic reading (DR) on the understanding and use of tier 2 vocabulary in preschoolers: Results from a semester long cohort study. 

This study investigated the effects of dialogic reading on vocabulary growth compared to traditional storybook reading in 3-4-year-old children. Participants included 8 children ranging from 3-4 years old from a daycare in Western Massachusetts. The parents were provided information on dialogic reading and traditional reading techniques along with an outline of the research that would be conducted throughout the two- month testing period. Prior to beginning the intervention, we distributed a pre-test to assess the participant's understanding and ability to produce the predetermined vocabulary words.  The vocabulary was highlighted in the 4 books used within the study, Noisy Nora (Rich & Wells, 1984), Pigs Aplenty, Pigs Galore! (McPhail, 1993), Those Darn Squirrels! (Rubin, 2012), and NINJA! (Chung, 2015). 

The participants were randomly assigned into two categories, traditional and dialogic, which then determined the reading technique they would receive. All books were read twice and a post-test was given to demonstrate the vocabulary growth that was conducted. The results suggested that dialogic reading has statistically significant effects on tier two receptive vocabulary. Therefore, dialogic reading is an effective technique to bolster children’s ability to understand higher-level vocabulary words.


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Experimental - Social Science

Effect of Font Color on Long Term Memory (Antonellis, M., Markkanen, K., Rosienski, A., & Roulier, S.)

Effect of Font Color on Long Term Memory 

Researched and presented by: Maria Antonellis, Kelly Markkanen, Allison Rosienski, and Sarah Roulier, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Matthew Brubaker, Assistant Professor of Psychology
Department: Psychology
Questions: mantonellis2@springfield.edu


Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact that various stimuli had on a memory recognition task.  

In particular this study was aimed at investigating long-term memory recall.  The following variables were examined to see if a cause-effect relationship exists; font color, positive and negative valence, and exposure to a visual stimulus.  Thirty-two people voluntarily participated in the study via an online platform.  They were recruited from a population of friends and family who were readily available to be part of the study due to COVID-19.  All participants viewed the same list of 36 words.  

Instructed by the facilitator, participants then engaged in a task counting out loud, backwards from 100 by twos.  Upon completion, participants were given a visual stimulus for 15 seconds before having three minutes to recall the words and their color.  The participants were randomly assigned to a visual stimulus: (1) placebo (white screen), (2) intense video (monster truck rally), and (3) calming video (underwater school of fish).  

The present study hypothesized that positive words in blue font will have the best level of recall because of the high level of valence in combination with the short-wavelengths of the color blue that will induce feelings of low arousal, which, when complimented with a calming video, will result in the highest level of successful recalls.  It was also hypothesized that the neutral words in black font will have a higher rate of recall than negative words in red font.  To determine whether there are any statistically significant differences between each group of interest an ANOVA will be run. 

Results and conclusions will be discussed. 


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Examining the Relationship between Mental Health and Division III Collegiate Athletic Status (Anfuso, S., Lawrence, G., & Liquori, Z.)

Examining the Relationship between Mental Health and Division III Collegiate Athletic Status

Researched and presented by: Shannon Anfuso, Gioncarlo Lawrence, and Zac Liquori, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Matthew Brubaker, Assistant Professor of Psychology
Department: Psychology
Questions: zliquori@springfield.edu


Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to determine if participation in NCAA Division III athletics interfered with an individual’s health. Full-time college students are under a great deal of pressure without the additional requirements and demands of NCAA athletics. Deadlines are always approaching for schoolwork, and there is still room to improve in any given sport. Where do full-time student-athletes find the time and head space to complete all of these goals and tasks? The survey utilized in this study aims to assess individual student’s mental health at Springfield College (SC). Questions within the primary survey were scale based to determine anxiety and stress levels. We expected to see higher levels of stress and anxiety (poorer mental health) in student-athletes vs. non-student-athletes. 

The participant bodies were comprised of half student-athletes and half non-student-athletes and were split as evenly as possible between males and females. Student-athletes are students at SC who were taking 12 or more credits and full-time members of an NCAA Division III team. Non-student-athletes are students who do not participate in athletics but do earn 12 or more credits. Before completing the primary survey, participants were asked to complete a ten question demographic questionnaire. This assessed factors about each anonymous participant to determine confounding variables on mental health, such as hours of sleep or if they have a job. The results will be discussed as to the statistical difference between the two participant groups.


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The Effects of College Proximity to Home on College Adjustment (Devine, M., Mason, S., Murakami, K., & Watne, E.)

The Effects of College Proximity to Home on College Adjustment

Researched and presented by: Morgan Devine, Samantha Mason, Kyle Murakami, and Elizabeth Watne, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Matthew Brubaker, Assistant Professor of Psychology
Department: Psychology
Questions: smason@springfield.edu


Abstract

The proposed study aims to assess the effect of the relationships one has with one's guardian and the potential feelings of homesickness while living away at college. The investigators hypothesized originally that college students who report high levels of attachment with one’s guardian will equate to higher scores on the scales that determine feelings of homesickness. 

Due to the unexpected event of COVID-19, students were no longer allowed to reside on college campuses anymore. Because of this, the invertogaters now hypothesize that a larger majority of students will miss their college’s, and may report feeling dissatisfied with their living situations at their permanent residence. Students at a small, private college in the northeast were administered a survey online that used multiple peer-reviewed scales to assess feelings of homesickness. 

The results of the data showed that a number of students who had increased communication with their guardians, paired with low levels of perceived support on campus showed the highest accordance or feelings of homesickness. The researchers believe this is due to the perception that students may feel more welcomed and supported at their homes, rather than at their college. This study was adjusted to include possible feelings of missing school due to the COVID-19 pandemic that occurred during the administering of the survey. 


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The Power of Superstitions and Rituals: Are College Athletes More Superstitious than Non-Student Athletes? (Drayton, C., Small, K., & Vargas, Y.)

The Power of Superstitions and Rituals: Are College Athletes More Superstitious than Non-Student Athletes?

Researched and presented by: Clifton Drayton, Kaya Small, and Yaixsa Vargas, Class of 2020
Sponsored by: Matthew Brubaker, Assistant Professor of Psychology
Department: Psychology
Questions: ksmall@springfield.edu


Abstract

The use of superstitions has become a popular phenomenon among several well-known athletes like Serena Williams and Tiger Woods. A previous study that measured stress levels in college student-athletes found that athletes who have higher levels of stress from daily life and sports had a reduced sense of athletic performance and more physical exhaustion (Lu, Hsu, Chan, Cheen, & Kao, 2012). 

In sports, where athletes can feel high levels of uncertainty, it is only reasonable that athletes would be more likely to use superstitions to help reduce uncertainty and try to influence the chance of success in their favor. The purpose of the current study was to identify whether college athletes engage in superstitious behavior and/or rituals more than non-student athletes. Further examination into the relationship between religiosity and superstition was also conducted.

Participants were 59 college students from Springfield College, consisting of 28 athletes and 30 non-athletes. Athletes were recruited through the Athletic Director and coaches via email, while non-athletes were recruited via email through the help of professors. Participants completed an online questionnaire using Google Forms, designed by the researchers to look at demographics, superstitious behavior and religiosity level of the participants. Superstitiousness and religiosity questions were answered using a 1-5 Likert Scale. The results for the following study, as well as its implications, will be discussed in the poster presentation.


View the The Power of Superstitions and Rituals: Are College Athletes More Superstitious than Non-Student Athletes? Poster

Effects of Video Gaming (Báez, G.)

Effects of Video Gaming

Researched and presented by: Glendy Báez
Sponsored by: Michael Accordino, Professor of Counseling
Department: Counseling
Questions: gbaez@springfield.edu


Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore and identify the effects of violent video games that have surfaced recently. This included elements on violent video games make people who play them violent? (b) what are the psychological and behavioral effects of video gaming? And (c) what are the effects of gaming on the brain? Literature reviews from 2011-2019 was performed. Concerns driven by certain situational real world crime has had scholars’ findings on contradictory stance 

Following classification of the studies, 20 qualifying studies were included. Results in the review of literature yielded mixed results. Even with the majority of the findings that found links to video games and aggression, there is no conclusive evidence that shows that video games are the cause of violence and crime. There is a lack of scientific data that is needed to argue the relationship between violent video games on behalf of the gamer’s mental state and aggressive outcome. More research is needed to fully understand the influence of violent video games throughout several aspects. Future studies should focus on determining the extent to which video games are capable of eliciting moral emotions and disengagement. More research is needed to understand the brain on video games and the long term impact of gray matter reduction has on cognitive health. Future implications are proposed with the intent to reach a better understanding of the violent video games debate in the general public.

Key words: violent video games, prevalence, aggressive behavior, mental health, and  criminality, gaming addiction

Promoting Successful Employment for Transition-Aged Students with Psychiatric Disabilities (Boutin, D., Accordino, M. P., & Glynn, K., M.)

Promoting Successful Employment for Transition-Aged Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

Researched and presented by: Daniel L. Boutin, Ph.D., CRC, NCC (Northern Illinois University), Michael P. Accordino, D.Ed., CRC, LMHC (Springfield College), and Kathleen M. Glynn, Ph.D., CRC (Springfield College)
Department: Counseling
Questions: maccordino@springfield.edu


Citations

Boutin, D., Accordino, M. P., & Glynn, K., M. (2018, April). Promoting successful employment for transition-aged students with psychiatric disabilities. Poster Presentation held at the National Council on Rehabilitation Education Conference, Anaheim, CA.

Glynn, K. M., Nerlich, A. P.,& Accordino, M. P. (2018). Public perceptions of disability. In A. P. Nerlich & K. M. Glynn (Eds.), Psychology of disability (2nd ed., pp. 70-106). Linn Creek, MO: Aspen Professional Services.

Glynn, K., Fullmer, L., Cumming-McCann, A. & Accordino, M.P. (2019, April). Ensuring competency: WIOA and implications for bachelor’s level undergraduate rehabilitation programs. Presentation held at the National Council on Rehabilitation Education Conference, San Diego, CA.

Paulin, H., Boutin, D.L., & Accordino, M.P. (2018, October). Assisting college student veterans with disabilities into employment: A collaborative approach. Poster presented at the Fall 2018 National Rehabilitation Education Conference, Arlington, VA.


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Performing Arts

Uncovered Truths (MacPherson, A.)

Uncovered Truths

Researched and presented by: Alexandra MacPherson, Class of 2021
Sponsored by: Sarah Zehnder, Assistant Professor of Dance
Department: Visual and Performing Arts/Dance
Questions: amacpherson2@springfield.edu


Abstract

For this year’s Scholars in Action Day, I will be presenting and conducting a live performance on my Dance Seminar project titled Uncovered Truths. Uncovered Truths is a contemporary dance show that I have been choreographing and working on throughout this semester. During my presentation, I will be elaborating on my ideas and methods of creating this show through a powerpoint as well as performing an excerpt piece from the show live through Zoom. The show consists of five choreographic works that address the emotional and personal impacts of difficult topics such as mental health, addiction, technology, homosexuality and sexual assault. 

Each piece raises questions about the reality of how these topics impact our lives on a daily basis as well as our relationships to self, others and technology. Varying perspectives are represented through contemporary and hip hop movement vocabularies to evoke emotional responses and bring attention to the individual’s ever-changing state of mind. I will be performing the piece about sexual assault and in my presentation I will explain how I formulated the concepts behind each piece and explain what choreographic tools I used to create. I will also reveal why I chose to focus on these topics and how I believe dance can transform society. At the end, there will be a Q&A for me to hear from the audience and receive feedback on my work in progress.


View the Uncovered Truths Dance Performance

View the Uncovered Truths PowerPoint Presentation